Certainly the ARPAnet is the best-known TCP/IP network. However as of June, 87, at least 130 different vendors had products that support TCP/IP, and thousands of networks of all kinds use it. The internet is a global network of computers that use protocols and data packets to exchange information.
He has written textbooks on computer science topics such as operating systems, computer networks, computer organization, and cryptography. He also maintains a website titled Computer Science Student Resource. He has authored 17 titles, and counting revised editions, a total of over 40 books on various aspects of these subjects. In over 20 years in the field, he has been a technical contributor, technical manager, and an executive with several high-technology firms. Currently he is an independent consultant whose clients have included computer and networking manufacturers and customers, software development firms, and leading-edge government research institutions.
When a user attempts to make a connection to another system, he will generally specify the system by name, rather than Internet address. His system has to translate that name to an address before it can do anything. Generally, only crossgrid.org a few systems have the database used to translate names to addresses. So the user’s system will want to send a query to one of the systems that has the database. Of course TCP does more than just break things up into datagrams.
- Then UDP sends the data to IP, which adds the IP header, putting UDP’s protocol number in the protocol field instead of TCP’s protocol number.
- This makes it easy to watch what is going on and to diagnose problems.
- The only thing that differs is the port number for the program that the users are running.
- (See the TCP specification for details.) TCP doesn’t number the datagrams, but the octets.
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Another alternative protocol is ICMP (“Internet control message protocol”). ICMP is used for error messages, and other messages intended for the TCP/IP software itself, rather than any particular user program. For example, if you attempt to connect to a host, your system may get back an ICMP message saying “host unreachable”. ICMP can also be used to find out some information about the network.
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TCP is a connection-based protocol, offering error correction and guaranteed delivery of data via what is known as flow control. Flow control determines when the flow of a data stream needs to be stopped, and previously sent data packets should to be re-sent due to problems such as collisions, for example, thus ensuring complete and accurate delivery of the data. TCP is typically used in the exchange of important information such as database transactions. TCP/IP is the driving force of the Internet, and thus it is the most popular set of network protocols on Earth.
Your TCP has to know the port number used by the other end as well. (It finds out when the connection starts, as we will explain below.) It puts this in the “destination” port field. Of course if the other end sends a datagram back to you, the source and destination port numbers will be reversed, since then it will be the source and you will be the destination. This is used so that the other end can make sure that it gets the datagrams in the right order, and that it hasn’t missed any.